Terrestrial Ecology and Conservation

(Requires updating for literature from 2013 on)

  • Aitkenhead-Peterson, J.A., Alexander, J.E. & Clair T.A. 2005. Dissolved organic carbon and dissolved organic nitrogen export from forested watersheds in Nova Scotia: Identifying controlling factors. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 19 (issue 4) Article Number: GB4016.
  • Baltzer, J.L., H.L. Hewlin, E.G. Reekie, P.D. Taylor and J.S. Boates. 2002. The impact of flower harvesting on seedling recruitment in Sea Lavender (Limonium carolinianum, Plumbaginaceae). Rhodora 104: 280-295.
  • Balsdon, J.L., Smith, T.W. and. Lundholm, J.T. 2011. Phenotypic and genotypic differentiation of Vaccinium vitis-idaea between coastal barrens and forests in Nova Scotia, Canada
    Botany 89:147-155
  • Burley, S. and Lundholm, J.T. 2010. Environmental predictors of forest expansion on open
    coastal barrens.
    Biodiversity Conservation 19:3269-3285.
  • Burley, S., Robinson, S.L., and Lundholm, J.T. 2008. Post-hurricane vegetation recovery in an urban forest. Landscape and Urban Planning 85: 111-122.
  • Carbyn, S., P. M. Catling, S. P. Vander Kloet, & S. Basquill. 2006. An analysis of the vascular flora of Annapolis Heathlands, Nova Scotia. Canadian Field-Naturalist 120(3): 351Ð362.
  • Catling, P.M. and Carbyn, S.E. (2005). Invasive Scots Pine, Pinus sylvestris, Replacing Corema, Corema conradii, Heathland in the Annapolis Valley, Nova Scotia. Canadian Field-Naturalist, 119(2): 237-244.
  • Cheng R and PG Lee. 2009. Recent (1990-2007) anthropogenic change within the forest
    landscapes of Nova Scotia
    . Edmonton: Global Forest Watch Canada. Accessed 22 Sep. 2009 at www.globalforestwatch.ca/change_analysis/NS/downloads.htm
  • Crins W.J. 1997. Rare and endangered plants and their habitats in Canada. Canadian Field-Naturalist 111: 506-519.
  • Francis, G. & Munro N. 1994. A biosphere reserve for Atlantic coastal plain flora, south western Nova Scotia. Biological Conservation 68: 275-279.
  • Dawe, C.E. and E.G. Reekie. 2007. The effects of flooding regime on the rare Atlantic coastal plain species, Hydrocotyle umbellata. Canadian Journal of Botany 85:167-174.
  • Freedman, B.; Stinson, G. & Lacoul, P. 2009. Carbon credits and the conservation of natural areas. Environmental Reviews 17: 1-19.
  • Freedman, B., Love, S, & O’Neil, B.
    1996. Tree species, biomass, and carbon storage in stands of urban forest
    of varying character in Halifax, Nova
    Scotia, Canada.
    Canadian Field-
    Naturalist
    110: 675Ð682.
  • Freedman, B., S. Woodley & J. Loo.
    1994. Forestry practices and biodiversity , with particular reference to the
    Maritime Provinces of eastern Canada.
    Environmental Reviews, 2:
    33Ð77.
  • Garbary, D.J. & Taylor, B.R. 2007 [2008]. Plant flowering during January in Antigonish County, Nova Scotia. Canadian Field-Naturalist 121: 76-80.
  • Hill, N.M., Beveridge, L., Flynn, A. & Garbary, D.J. 2010. Rosa rugosa as an invader of coastal sand dunes of Cape Breton Island and mainland of Nova Scotia. The Canadian Field Naturalist 124: 151-158.
  • Hill, N. M., and C. S. Blaney. 2009. Exotic and invasive vascular
    plants of the Atlantic Maritime Ecozone. Pages

    in Assessment of species diversity in the Atlantic Maritime
    Ecozone
    . Edited by D. F. McAlpine and I. M. Smith. NRC
    Research Press, Ottawa, pp 1-18.
  • Hill, N.M. & Johansson M.E. 1992. Geographical distribution and ecology of Long Bulrush, Scirpus longii (Cyperaceae) in Canada. Rhodora 94: 141-155.
  • Hill, N.M. & Keddy, P.A. 1992. Prediction of rarities from habitat variables – coastal plain plants of Nova Scotia lakeshores. Ecology 73: 1852-1859.
  • Hill, N.M., Keddy, P.A. & Wisheu, I.C. 1998. A hydrological model for predicting the effects of dams on the shoreline vegetation of lakes and reservoirs. Environmental Management 22: 723-736.
  • Lundholm J, MacIvor JS, MacDougall Z, Ranalli M (2010) Plant species and functional group combinations affect green roof ecosystem functions. PLoS ONE 5(3): e9677. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0009677
  • Lusk J.M. & Reekie E.G. 2007. The effect of growing season length and water level fluctuations on growth and survival of two rare and at risk Atlantic coastal plain flora species, Coreopsis rosea and Hydrocotyle umbellate. Canadian Journal of Botany 85: 119-131.
  • McAlpine, D.F. & Smith, I.M. (editors). 2010. Assessment of Species Diversity in the Atlantic Maritime Ecozone. NRC Research Press, Ottawa, Ontario. See Contents & Contributors
  • Moola F.M. & Vasseur L. 2004. Recovery of late-seral vascular plants in a chronosequence of post-clearcut forest stands in coastal Nova Scotia, Canada. Plant Ecology 172: 183-197.
  • Morris, P.A., N.M. Hill, E.G. Reekie, and H.L. Hewlin. 2002. Lakeshore diversity and rarity relationships along interacting disturbance gradients: catchment area, wave action and depth. Biological Conservation 106: 79-90.
  • Mosseler,A., Lynds, J.A. &J.E. Major. 2003. Old-growth forests of the Acadian Forest Region. Environmental Reviews 11: S47ÐS77.
  • Oberndorfer, Erica C. & Lundholm, J.T. 2009. Species richness, abundance, rarity and environmental gradients in coastal barren vegetation. Biodiverssity & Conservation 8:1523Ð1553
  • Taylor, B.R. & Garbary, D.J. 2003. Late flowering plants from northern Nova Scotia, Canada. Rhodora 105: 118-135.
  • Turner, K., Lefler L., & Freedman, B. 2005. Plant communities of selected urbanized areas of Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada
    Landscape and Urban Planning
    71 (2-4): 28 191-206
  • Veinotte, C., Freedman, B. , Maass, W., & Kirstein, F. 2003. Comparison of the Ground Vegetation in Spruce Plantations and Natural Forest in the Greater Fundy Ecosystem, New Brunswick.
    Canadian Field-Naturalist 117(4):,531-540.
  • Windels, S.K. and Flaspohler, D.J. 2011. The ecology of Canada Yew (Taxus canadensis Marsh.): A review. Botany 89:1-17.
  • Wisheu, I.C., Keddy, C.J., Keddy, P.A. & Hill, N.M. 1994. Disjunct Atlantic coastal plain species in Nova Scotia – distribution, habitat and conservation priorities. Biological Conservation 68: 217-224.
  • Wisheu, I.C. & Keddy, P.A. 1994. The low competitive ability of Canada Atlantic coastal plain shoreline flora, south western Nova Scotia – implications for conservation. Biological Conservation 68: 247-252.

Classic Paper

Roland, A.E. & Smith, E.C. The Flora of Nova Scotia. Part 2: The Dicotyledons. Proceedings of the Nova Scotia Institute of Science 26 (Part 4), 1969: 277-743. The Introduction to this work (pp. 279-311) provides an overview of the flora of Nova Scotia, including historical aspects of botanical work in the province, the physical background and the floral elements (they identify seven: Arctic-alpine and boreal disjunct elements, the boreal element, the Canadian element, the Allegenian element, the southwestern flora, plants of the seashore, introduced plants and weeds). Available online. See papers in McAlpine & Smith (2010), cited above for current perspectives.

UPDATE (NOV 2015). This material has been completely revised and updated in the new Plants of Nova Scotia e-book. See

  • A BRIEF HISTORY OF BOTANICAL EXPLORATION IN NOV SCOTIA by Ruth Newell p iii-vi
  • THE FLORAL ELEMENTS OF NOVA SCOTIA (with citations) vii-xv by Nicholas M. Hill and J. Sherman Boates
  • in Nova Scotia Plants by Marian C. Munro, Ruth E. Newell & Nicholas M. Hill (2014) available as PDF at https://ojs.library.dal.ca/NSM/pages/view/Plants


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